Financial accounting (or financial accountancy) is the field of accounting concerned with the summary, analysis and reporting of financial transactions pertaining to a business

Financial accounting (or financial accountancy) is the field of accounting concerned with the summary, analysis and reporting of financial transactions pertaining to a business.[1] This involves the preparation of financial statements available for public consumption. Stockholders, suppliers, banks, employees, government agencies, business owners, and other stakeholders are examples of people interested in receiving such information for decision making purposes.Financial accountancy is governed by both local and international accounting standards. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) is the standard framework of guidelines for financial accounting used in any given jurisdiction. It includes the standards, conventions and rules that accountants follow in recording and summarising and in the preparation of financial statements. On the other hand, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is a set of international accounting standards stating how particular types of transactions and other events should be reported in financial statements. IFRS are issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).[2][3] With IFRS becoming more widespread on the international scene, consistency in financial reporting has become more prevalent between global organisations.While financial accounting is used to prepare accounting information for people outside the organisation or not involved in the day-to-day running of the company, management accounting provides accounting information to help managers make decisions to manage the business.Financial accounting and financial reporting are often used as synonyms.1. According to International Financial Reporting Standards, the objective of financial reporting is:To provide financial information about the reporting entity that is useful to existing and potential investors, lenders and other creditors in making decisions about providing resources to the entity.[4]2. According to the European Accounting Association:Capital maintenance is a competing objective of financial reporting.[5]Financial accounting is the preparation of financial statements that can be consumed by the public and the relevant stakeholders using either HCA or CPPA. When producing financial statements, they must comply to the following:[6]The Statement of Cash Flows considers the inputs and outputs in concrete cash within a stated period. The general template of a cash flow statement is as follows: Cash Inflow – Cash Outflow + Opening Balance = Closing BalanceExample 1: in the beginning of September, Ellen started out with $5 in her bank account. During that same month, Ellen borrowed $20 from Tom. At the end of the month, Ellen bought a pair of shoes for $7. Ellen's cash flow statement for the month of September looks like this:Example 2: in the beginning of June, WikiTables, a company that buys and resells tables, sold 2 tables. They'd originally bought the tables for $25 each, and sold them at a price of $50 per table. The first table was paid out in cash however the second one was bought in credit terms. WikiTables' cash flow statement for the month of June looks like this:Important: the cash flow statement only considers the exchange of actual cash, and ignores what the person in question owes or is owed.In case of service organisations they are called as profit & loss a/c as income statement.the profit or loss is determined by:Sales (revenue) – Cost of Sales – total expenses + total income – tax paid = profit/lossThe balance sheet is the statement showing assets & liabilities. As per the proforma on its right it shows assets and on its left side it shows liabilities. It helps know the status of a company. The difference between current assets and current liabilities is called working capital. The assets and liabilities are mainly divided into 2 types:The liabilities areThe statements assist detailed study and analysis in each segment. For suppose in case of if you analyse the income or profit and loss statement that means you analyse the real meaning to how much earned or sustained loss when compare to last financial year to this year.THE STABLE MEASURING UNIT ASSUMPTION One of the basic principles in accounting is “The Measuring Unit principle:The unit of measure in accounting shall be the base money unit of the most relevant currency. This principle also assumes the unit of measure is stable; that is, changes in its general purchasing power are not considered sufficiently important to require adjustments to the basic financial statements.”[7]Historical Cost Accounting, i.e., financial capital maintenance in nominal monetary units, is based on the stable measuring unit assumption under which accountants simply assume that money, the monetary unit of measure, is perfectly stable in real value for the purpose of measuring (1) monetary items not inflation-indexed daily in terms of the Daily CPI and (2) constant real value non-monetary items not updated daily in terms of the Daily CPI during low and high inflation and deflation.UNITS OF CONSTANT PURCHASING POWER The stable measuring unit assumption is not applied during hyperinflation. IFRS requires entities to implement capital maintenance in units of constant purchasing power in terms of IAS 29 Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies.Financial accountants produce financial statements based on the accounting standards in a given jurisdiction. These standards may be the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) of a respective country, which are typically issued by a national standard setter, or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), which are issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).Financial accounting serves the following purposes:Objectives of Financial AccountingThe accounting equation (Assets = Liabilities + Owners' Equity) and financial statements are the main topics of financial accounting.The trial balance, which is usually prepared using the double-entry accounting system, forms the basis for preparing the financial statements. All the figures in the trial balance are rearranged to prepare a profit & loss statement and balance sheet. Accounting standards determine the format for these accounts (SSAP, FRS, IFRS). Financial statements display the income and expenditure for the company and a summary of the assets, liabilities, and shareholders' or owners' equity of the company on the date to which the accounts were prepared.Assets and expenses have normal debit balances, i.e., debiting these types of accounts increases them.Liabilities, revenues, and capital have normal credit balances, i.e., crediting these increases them.When the same thing is done to an account as its normal balance it increases; when the opposite is done, it will decrease. Much like signs in math: two positive numbers are added and two negative numbers are also added. It is only when there is one positive and one negative (opposites) that you will subtract.Many professional accountancy qualifications cover the field of financial accountancy, including Certified Public Accountant (CPA), Chartered Accountant (CA or other national designations) and Chartered Certified Accountant (ACCA).Alexander, D., Britton, A., Jorissen, A., "International Financial Reporting and Analysis", Second Edition, 2005, ISBN 978-1-84480-201-2